Make a blog

desertclerk83

1 year ago

Methane CH is another important greenhouse gas emitted from

The error bars represent standard deviation and different small letter indicates a significant difference (P < 0.05) among treatments.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
The majority of NH3 volatilization occurred within one week of N application. Similar observation has also been reported by other studies (Hayashi et al., 2006 and Pacholski et al., 2006). The second topdressing took place about 10 days before elongation-heading stage. Therefore, most of NH3 volatilization had been completed by the heading stage (Table 7).

1 year ago

Statistical analysis Statistical analysis using StatPlus software

Median THg concentrations from the three untreated wastewater discharges to Lake Zapotlán were high (265.4 ng/L, range: 17.5–942.3 ng/L, n = 13) and largely associated with particles (89%; Fig. 2). Median unfiltered THg concentrations in the water flows from the C. Guzman wastewater treatment plant (363.5 ng/L, range: 133.8–942.3, n = 9) were an order of magnitude higher than those MPC 6827 from the less urbanized municipality of San Sebastián del Sur (27.7 ng/L, range: 17.5–64.2, n = 4). A one-time sampling of inflow and treated outflow water from the primary body largest C. Guzmán treatment plant demonstrated high THg removal efficiencies for both particle-bound (97–98%) and dissolved THg (82%) with effluent THg concentrations < 10.0 ng Hg/L. This difference certainly suggested that, on the whole, bypassing untreated wastewater dominated the volume of the channel conducting flows from the C. Guzman wastewater treatment plant.

1 year ago

Table nbsp shows that the total

In order to see if there are differences between aerosol size distributions associated with the various activities, the Kruskal–Wallis non-parametric test (Kruskal and Wallis, 1952) followed by Dunn\'s test (Dunn, 1964) was applied. Statistically significant differences were observed in every pair-wise test (p < 0.001) at the 0.05 level of significance. Firstly, the test shows significant differences between the XIII code (weekend) and the periods when sports activities are being developed (II to VIII codes).

1 year ago

In the present study an HPLC ndash

Coastal lagoon environments are characterized by being isolated from the open sea, which makes them highly vulnerable to impacts. This HTH-01-015 the case of the studied area, the Mar Menor lagoon (Murcia, SE Spain), which receives a wide variety of chemical pollutants associated with anthropogenic activities. Its ecological equilibrium is threatened by massive urban growth and intensive agricultural activity (Conesa and Jiménez-Cárceles, 2007). The lagoon receives water run-off from the coastal plain of Campo de Cartagena, which is one of the most important intensive agricultural areas in Europe. At the present time, El Albujón watercourse constitutes the main collector in the Campo de Cartagena drainage system (García-Pintado et al., 2007), maintaining a regular flux fed by groundwater (drainage of irrigated crops) isotopes is only continuous in the last 3–8 km, depending on the season (Velasco et al., 2006).
2. Materials and methods
2.1. Study area and experimental design

1 year ago

The majority of urban receiving

Where detailed site surveys have been undertaken, for example on the River Roding in NE London where 15 surface water outfalls over a 10 km stretch were determined to be polluted primarily as a result of surveyed misconnections, rectification work has been able to substantially remediate the receiving water quality. Average in-stream phosphate levels have been reduced from 1.28 mg/l to below 0.4 mg/l, with improvement of the ecological categorisation of the watercourse from grade C (poor status) to B (good status) over a 7 year BRL 37344 to 2012. Detailed MST backtracking tracer surveys of PSWO discharges to the receiving watercourse of a 1 km2 residential catchment containing 2068 properties in the Chingford area to the north east of Greater London, detected some 347 misconnections (17%) discharging to the River Ching recording BOD5 and E. coli levels as high as 275 mg/l and 2.42 × 104 MPN/100 ml respectively. The rectification of the identified household misconnections has upgraded the receiving water body to good status (Grade B) confirming the prejudicial impact of such illicit sources on ecological potential. A survey of the 1.5 km2 catchment of the Moston Brook, a small urbanised tributary of the River Irwell in the NE Manchester metropolitan area, similarly identified a total of 400 properties having misconnections ( Hulme and Rukin, 2013). Scaled up to the 9950 km2 catchment area of Thames Water divergent plate boundary would yield a misconnection rate some 28 times higher than the recent UKWIR (2013) national estimate of 140,000. It is only through such detailed multiple-method site investigations that the distribution and extent of pollution sources and contributions within an urban catchment can be established and rectification works appropriately prioritised.

1 year ago

The azide and the isocyanate anions are isoelectronic

Several authors [11], [12] and [70] reported that NCO− species are intermediates in the selective catalytic NVP-BHG712 of NOx with hydrocarbons. The isocyanates are thermally stable and hardly interact with NO or O2 alone. However, these species disappear in mixtures of the two gases with the formation of dinitrogen [11] and [12]. Here we found a very similar behavior of the surface azides. They are thermally stable (decompose above 573 K) and practically does not interact with NO (at low equilibrium pressure) or O2 at ambient temperature.

1 year ago

The major application for TiO is as a pigment in

Fig. 2. Adsorption isotherms of ISA (■), PHS 1400 (?), and PHS 3500 (♦) on uncoated TiO2 in decalin. Solid lines were obtained from Langmuir fit (inset).Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
Fig. 3. Adsorption isotherms of ISA (■), PHS 1400 (?), and PHS 3500 (♦) on uncoated TiO2 in mesitylene. Solid lines were obtained from Langmuir fit (inset).Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
The adsorption curves were applied to the Langmuir equation [16] i.e.:equation(1)CeQe=1QmK+CeQmwhere Qe A 887826 the equilibrium adsorbate concentration on adsorbent (mg m−2), Qm is ventral monolayer capacity of the adsorbent (mg m−2), K is adsorption constant (L mg−1), and Ce is equilibrium adsorbate concentration in solution (mg L−1).
The straight line relationship between Ce/Qe versus Ce for all the dispersants enabled values for the Langmuir adsorption equilibrium constant (K) and for the monolayer capacity of the adsorbent (Qm) to be obtained from the intercept (1/QmK) and from the slope (1/Qm). As seen in the insets in Fig. 2 and Fig. 3, the Langmuir isotherm fits quite well with the experimental data for all dispersants in both solvents (R2 > 0.99).

1 year ago

Upon unloading and thermal cycling under

It is assumed that Miltefosine the retained texture in the Ni24.3Ti49.7Pd26 alloy was “pinned” by the lattice defects that were generated during thermomechanical cycling. Thus, the microstructure of the post-cycled (steps (i + ii + iii)) material was examined in the TEM and general examples are shown in Fig. 13 and Fig. 14. After cycling, the majority of the martensite still consisted of elongated parallel plates, but the nature of the martensite had changed from “self-accommodated” in the aged condition (Fig. 1c) to predominantly “reoriented” with only one set of 1 1 1 type I twins, as shown in Fig. 13a. The alternate plates labeled A, B and C in Fig. 13a show reoriented twin structure that is similar to that present in plates D and E, and also contain some detwinned areas with a complete loss of the originally present 1 1 1 type I twins. This suggests that the preferred martensite twin variant that was aligned closest to the loading direction was favored after loading and cycling. In addition, a high density of dislocations ( Fig. 13b and c) and some recovered regions bounded by subgrain boundaries (marked by arrows in Fig. 13b) were also observed in the microstructure. The interaction of dislocations with fine precipitates and anti-phase boundaries (arrows) is clearly seen in Figs.  13d and  14a. In addition, several new twinned structures were observed throughout the microstructure. These were more pronounced in the detwinned regions, as shown by arrows in Fig. 14c. Occasionally these were also observed in the plates containing an array of LIS 1 1 1 type I twins; an example of one such intersecting inclined set is shown by white arrows in Fig. 14b. Many of these twins appeared to originate from the martensite interplate boundaries where the dislocation density was somewhat higher. SADP of the circled area shown in Fig. 14c, suggested that these were 0 1 1 compound twins, which are not the LIS but considered deformation twins for the B19 to B2 transformation [37] and [64].

1 year ago

Both HfFe and TaFe crystallize

The corresponding structure is plotted in Fig. 1. It is composed of one atomic position for Hf/Ta (4f Wyckoff site) and two inequivalent positions for the Fe atoms: the 2a and 6h Wyckoff position. The unit cell is composed of 4 formula units and this SAG crystal structure is typical of Frank and Kasper type intermetallic phases featured by icosahedral polyhedron with low coordination of 12 [35]. The 2a Fe atoms located at (0, 0, 0) position have an axial symmetry (−3m).

1 year ago

Impact of raw water characteristics on

More recently, studies from a range of UNC669 and soil types have identified significant relationships between plant functional type (PFT) and the production of DOC and water colour, in both the laboratory (Cleveland et al., 2004 and Wickland et al., 2007) and the field (Pellerin et al., 2010). This relationship is thought to occur because the physical and chemical properties of litter, which vary between PFT, have a strong influence on the rate of decomposition and therefore DOC production (Hobbie et al., 2000). Blanket peatland vegetation communities are comprised of a range of PFT types and consequently vegetation composition is likely to influence the amount of DOC and colour in water draining from blanket peatlands. This hypothesis is supported by laboratory peat manipulation studies (Vestgarden and Austnes, 2009), with bare peat producing more colour when saturated than other cover types while under dry conditions Calluna-dominated cores doubled their colour production (Millar, 2008). A preliminary field study by Armstrong et al. (2012) found that soil water in ditched areas of blanket peatland dominated by Calluna sp. had greater concentrations of DOC than those ditched areas dominated by Sphagnum sp. and sedges. However, an understanding of the extent to which a catchment\'s vegetation composition influences the level of colour and concentration of DOC in stream water is lacking. Although plot and laboratory scale studies are of value in understanding drivers of DOC and water colour production, blanket peatland vegetation is typically highly heterogeneous, and multiple drivers may contribute towards the amount of DOC and water colour observed within stream waters at a catchment scale. Consequently, in order to establish the dominant drivers of DOC and colour in peatland stream waters and to establish an understanding of controls of value to land managers, vegetation must be investigated across multiple catchments.